Publications prepared by the Educational Research Institute (IBE) as a ReferNet Partner:


Teachers and trainers

Teachers and trainers in a changing world

The report Teachers and trainers in a changing world presents basic information concerning teachers, including vocational teachers. The publication presents the occupation of teacher in a comprehensive way, focusing especially on definitional issues, the legal framework, professional development and other determinants of a teacher’s work. The report also includes the challenges that teachers faced due to the COVID-19 pandemic and is supplemented by examples of recent social research on the teaching occupation.


IBE/ReferNet Poland

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Vocational education and training for the future of work
The analysis presents various types of changes in the field of vocational education, which are planned and are being undertaken in the context of the development of industry 4.0, as well digitization, automation and the development of new technologies. The analysis reviews strategic documents and changes at the level of education policy, the labour market, technology and digitization. The voices of important stakeholders in these areas are also presented. Moreover, it includes examples of specific activities aimed at better adapting VET to the challenges of industry 4.0, as well as examples of the use of solutions relating to automation.


IBE/ReferNet Poland

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International mobility in apprenticeships: focus on long-term mobility: Poland

This article discusses the key factors influencing mobility in apprenticeships in Poland, in particular long-term mobility (90 days or more). The focus is on apprenticeships in the wider context of vocational education and training, as apprenticeships are an integral part of VET. The article is based on extensive desk research, analysis of available data regarding mobility participants as well as on interviews with members of institutions involved in mobility schemes.


IBE/ReferNet Poland

vocational education training
Vocational education and training in Europe - Poland Country Report 2018

The report presents a description of the VET system in Poland in 2018, and thus includes the changes introduced by the reform of the education system, implemented as of the 2017/2018 school year. The report presents the key elements of the VET system, its structure, organisation, management and financing. The report describes also, among others, various external factors affecting vocational training, the development of the VET offer and issues relating to the promotion of vocational education in Poland.


IBE/ReferNet Poland

opinion survey
Cedefop public opinion survey on vocational education and training in Europe: Poland

The report presents an analysis of the results of a public opinion survey on vocational education and training in Poland. Cedefop European public opinion survey on VET took place in 2016. The report describes, among others, issues relating to knowledge about the vocational education and training offer, its perception, direct experience with vocational education, as well as the assessment of its role and impact.


IBE/ReferNet Poland

Guidance and outreach for inactive and unemployed - Poland

The report presents the activities conducted to reach vulnerable groups affected by unemployment and inactivity, in particular young adults not in employment, education or training (NEET) and adults experiencing long-term unemployment (LTU). Two examples of outreach practices were chosen for an in-depth presentation: the activities of the Voluntary Labour Corps and the development of social cooperatives.


IBE/ReferNet Poland

 Spotlight on VET − Poland

A concise overview in brochure format of the Polish vocational education and training system (VET), describing its organisation and main features.


IBE/ReferNet Poland

vocational education and training in europe
Vocational education and training in Europe – Poland Country Report 2016

The report presents a detailed description of the VET system in Poland, including its structure, organisation and financing. The report discusses the influence of external factors, such as changes in demography, the economy and the labour market on vocational education and training in Poland. It explains how vocational qualifications are developed, provides information on the Polish Integrated Qualifications System and describes the promotion of participation in vocational education in Poland.


IBE/ReferNet Poland


The latest publications on VET in Poland published by CEDEFOP:

Poland 2023 update

Inventory of lifelong guidance systems and practices - Poland



cover skills forecast 2023 Poland
Poland - 2023  Skills forecast




European inventory of NQFs 2022 – Poland



Inventory of LLG2021

Inventory of lifelong guidance systems and practices - Poland



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Poland - 2020  Skills forecast



PL NQF2020

European inventory of NQFs 2020 – Poland



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The report presents a description of the VET system in Poland in 2015-2019. The report presents the key elements of the VET system, changes, its structure, organisation, management, quality and financing. The report also describes, among others, information on the development of the offer of vocational training, apprenticeships and issues related to supporting participation in vocational training in Poland.


IBE/ReferNet Poland

Poland - 2018 Skills forecast



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Developments in vocational education and training policy in 2015-17: Poland



 leaving education early  
Poland - Leaving education early: putting vocational education and training centre stage



 country report  
European inventory on validation of non-formal and informal learning − Poland




See more

ReferNet is a network of institutions created by Cedefop in 2002 to provide information on national vocational education and training (VET) systems and policies in the EU Member States, Iceland and Norway. The ReferNet network includes thirty partners from thirty countries:

ibw Austria - Research & Development in VET 
Homepage | ReferNet website |

Bruxelles Formation
Homepage | ReferNet website |

NAVET - National Agency for Vocational Education and Training
Homepage | ReferNet website |

AVETAE - Agency for Vocational Education and Training and Adult Education
Homepage | ReferNet website |

HRDA - Human Resource Development Authority of Cyprus
Homepage | ReferNet website |

 Czech Republic
NÚV - National Institute for Education, Education Counselling Centre, And Centre for Continuing Education of Teachers
Homepage | ReferNet website |

Metropolitan University College
Homepage | ReferNet website |

Ministry of Education and Research
Homepage | ReferNet website |

Finnish National Agency of Education
Homepage | ReferNet website |  |  | 

Centre Inffo – Centre for the Development of Information on Continuing Vocational Training
Homepage | ReferNet website |  | 

BIBB - Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training
Homepage | ReferNet website |

Homepage | ReferNet website | |

National Office of Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning - NSZFH-NOVETAL
Homepage | ReferNet website |

Education Directorate
Homepage | ReferNet website |

SOLAS - Further Education and Training Authority
Homepage | ReferNet website |

INAPP - Istituto Nazionale per l'Analisi delle Politiche Pubbliche
HomepageReferNet website |

AIC – Academic Information Centre - Latvian National Observatory
Homepage | ReferNet website |

KPMPC – Qualifications and Vocational Education and Training Development Centre
Homepage | ReferNet website |

INFPC – National Institute for the Development of Continuing Vocational Training
Homepage | ReferNet website |

Ministry for Education and Employment
Homepage | ReferNet website |

ECBO - Centre for expertise in VET
Homepage | ReferNet website | |

Norwegian Centre for international cooperation in education
Homepage | ReferNet website |

Educational Research Institute (IBE)
Homepage | ReferNet website

DGERT- Directorate General for Employment and Industrial Relations
Homepage | ReferNet website |

CNDIPT - National centre for development of technical and vocational education
Homepage | ReferNet website |

SIOV - State Institute of VET
Homepage | ReferNet website |

CPI - Centre for Vocational Education and Training
Homepage | ReferNet website |

State Foundation for Employment and Training
Homepage | ReferNet website | | | |  | |

SKOLVERKET - Swedish National Agency for Education
HomepageReferNet website |

 United Kingdom
HomepageReferNet website |

ReferNet collects information on and monitors developments in national VET policies and systems. This information is used by CEDEFOP for different types of publications and products:

VET in Europe Country Reports − provide detailed descriptions of national VET systems in all ReferNet partner countries. The reports are prepared by each country and targeted to the wider public.

Spotlights on VET − summarise key features and developments of the national VET systems. These short brochures are aimed at readers who need a concise overview of VET in a specific country.

National News on VET − short articles on recent events and developments in VET and VET-related labour market issues in all partner countries.

Thematic perspectives − a publication series on VET supplementing the general information on VET systems in partner countries. The topics covered often feature actual VET challenges, the priorities of the EU Presidencies and flagship initiatives in vocational education and training.


Banner national news on VET Banner VET IN EUROPE country reports

Key VET policy documents of the European Union:


Opinion on the future of vocational education and training after 2020

An opinion developed by the Advisory Committee on Vocational Training (December 2018) that includes a vision on how to adapt vocational education and training systems to future social and economic challenges after 2020.


Riga Conclusions

The Riga Conclusions (June 2015) agreed by the Member States, European Commission and social partners, contain five medium-term deliverables in the field of vocational education and training for the period of 2015-2020.

Rethinking Education: Investing in skills for better socio-economic outcomes

Rethinking Education is a Communication from the Commission (November 2012) presenting the challenges and the priorities for national and EU policies in the field of education, where great importance is attributed to Vocational Education and Training. 


The Bruges Communiqué

The Bruges Communiqué (December 2010) is a package of objectives and actions to increase the quality of vocational training in Europe by making it more accessible and relevant to the needs of the labour market.


The Bordeaux Communiqué

The Bordeaux Communique (November 2008) takes stock of the progress achieved, defines priorities for 2008-2010 and introduces the new objective of strengthening the links between VET and the labour market. This ties in with the "New skills for new jobs" initiative on anticipating and matching labour market and skills needs.


The Helsinki Communiqué

The Helsinki Communique (December 2006) reviews the priorities and strategies of the Copenhagen Process on Enhanced European Cooperation in Vocational Education and Training and sets further specific priorities.


The Maastricht Communiqué

The Maastricht Communique (December 2004) expands upon the Copenhagen declaration and includes national level priorities.


The Copenhagen Declaration

The priorities and principles for the Process on Enhanced European Cooperation in Vocational Education and Training were first set out in the Copenhagen Declaration (November 2002). This European strategy aims to improve the overall performance, quality and attractiveness of VET in Europe.


More information is available on the Cedefop website.